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Moving In to Your Student Home – Tips and Hacks

Move In to Your Student Home

Moving into your student home is an exciting milestone, but the process of actually moving in can be stressful and tiring. Whether you’re relocating from a nearby location or a long distance away, there are a few strategies that can make the process easier for you.

Color code your boxes by function: Instead of cramming items into boxes randomly, pack them based on their intended areas in your student home. For example, keep all bathroom items in one box and kitchenware in another. To make it easier, use different colors to label each box according to its function. This way, you’ll know exactly where each box belongs, save time when unpacking, and reduce the chances of losing items.

Efficient packing saves space: While color coding may require more boxes, you can maximize space by packing efficiently. For instance, instead of using bubble wrap, you can wrap fragile items like glasses and mugs in kitchen towels to save space. By optimizing your packing, you’ll have more room for important items and potentially require fewer boxes overall.

Use a foldable sack truck for moving boxes: One of the most challenging aspects of moving is physically transporting the boxes from your vehicle to your room, especially if they contain heavy items like TVs. Investing in a foldable sack truck can make this task much easier. These portable metal structures are designed to wheel boxes and reduce the strain on your body. They are commonly used in warehouses and can significantly speed up the moving process.

By following these tips, you can streamline the moving-in process to your student home, save time and energy, and ensure a smoother transition into your new living space.

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Use of AI to Write Assignments, Is it Worth It?

Since it was first developed in November 2022, ChatGPT has taken the academic world by storm. In this digital age, students can use artificial intelligence text generators like this one to write essays and assignments for them.

Sure enough it’s a useful tool as it can produce answers to questions on a variety of subjects or even when the subject doesn’t exist (break up songs in the style of Tailor Swift, anyone?).

But despite all the fun and potential, there’s no denying the risks which come along with using technology like this whilst studying at university – most notably, but not limited to academic plagiarism.

Bending the rules, or if we want to be more straightforward – cheating, has always existed in academia; from students paying others to complete their assignments for them, to the old fashioned sneaking in notes to exams,copying answers from friends, or copy and pasting information found online, and so forth.

It’s not a new phenomenon for any generation but Gen-Z has managed to take the challenge to a new level. The perfect recipe for a disaster if you’re a teacher or a lecturer – “fake writing” is becoming harder to spot and easier to do as technology develops.

The question is, does it really work? What are the risks of using software like ChatGPT and other AI-powered copywriting variations as a university student?

ChatGPT students

Does Using Artificial Intelligence Really Work?

Whether you’re a fan of it or not, there’s no denying that artificial Intelligence has begun taking over the world, with art and literature being the starting points for the rapidly growing technology. And as with any new trend, it makes sense that GenZ students are eagerly jumping on the craze.

It’s not just text to image creations that artificial intelligence programmes can produce, they are now able to generate written content from essays to assignments, to poems, to emails, to song lyrics and blog posts – the opportunities are endless.

One of the most notable AI writing software’s is ChatGPT which can help create content in a matter of seconds.

The chatbot was developed by Open AI, the same company which produced DALL-E, and uses natural language processing and machine learning algorithms to produce many forms of written word.

This free software can help replace spending hours on Google or (so ancient) at the library, as you can ask it questions and prompts in a human-like conversation.

Need a list of the best restaurants in your local area – you’ve got it. Last-minute assignment – ChatGPT can write an essay on a specific subject, just add the quotes.

Nervous about writing a cover letter for your university application or first job – you guessed it, it can do that.

In just the first five days of the software’s release it reached 1 million users and it doesn’t stop there.

Now a few months on, more and more people across the globe are tuning in to use the technological game changer, especially those in academia.

Does Using Artificial Intelligence Really Work? 

How To Use ChatGPT

If you’re wanting to try out ChatGPT for yourself, you simply need to sign up to make an account with your email and you can begin to type in prompts and gain detailed responses.

ChatGPT is available to use on both desktop and mobile with an easy navigation on both interfaces, so you can take your pick between either. We tried the large language model out on both a desktop and phone, both are easy to use and you can simply begin asking questions right away.

ChatGPT on desktop: 

ChatGPT on desktop: 

ChatGPT on mobile: 

ChatGPT on mobile: 

We asked ChatGPT several different prompts, including asking it to write an essay for us on artificial intelligence, it took only seconds for an answer to be generated.

chatgpt write essay

We then typed in “explain academic plagiarism in simple terms” to which the AI programme produced a quick human-like response. You can even ask it to regenerate the response for a new answer.

explain academic plagiarism chatgpt

Try it out for yourself and see what prompts you come up with, and what the responses are.

The AI software is currently free as it’s in research preview, meaning the creators are gaining users’ feedback and learning about the strengths and weaknesses. It’s likely in the future there will be costs to use ChatGPT, once it’s fully developed.

And considering its current popularity amongst the GenZ in higher education, will students get a discount?

What Are The Risks For Students?

Artificial intelligence opens up so many possibilities for the future of academia, but software like ChatGPT raises too many questions for the modern education system.

The whole purpose of writing assignments whilst at university is to learn how to write and develop skills which will not only take students through the degree, but into their adult life too.

However, let’s be realistic – students have been trying to find shortcuts around writing assignments since the beginning of time (or at least since the first university).

If the technology is available, and even more temptingly – completely free, it is almost naive to think it won’t be quickly put into practice.

Whilst the new artificial intelligence tool can be undoubtedly useful, it can be just as dangerous for the new generation of students who utilise this technology. If you’re going to use ChatGPT, you should be aware of the risks it poses.

student using chatgpt

Academic Plagiarism

Currently it may be hard to detect whether an assignment or essay is produced by an AI software like ChatGPT as it’s a completely new phenomenon, but it’s not impossible.

Research suggests that Turnitin will be able to catch students who have used AI within their assignments in the near future.

It’s not just plagiarism checkers which can help determine whether content is written using softwares like ChatGPT, universities themselves may be able to tell whether their students have used it to write essays or assignments.

We all have our own individual writing style, and your lecturers will know how you write. It is not impossible to imagine a future in which an entry in-person exam is introduced to simply familiarise lecturers with someone’s writing.

It might sound even wilder, but going back to a fully pen and paper exam season is also a possibility. Students who start churning out text-book level responses which are first class standard will more than likely get alarm bells ringing, especially if they don’t compare to previous submissions.

Academic plagiarism is a serious form of cheating and misconduct which can have huge consequences, including impacting your university place.

Universities in the USA have already banned the use of the software on their servers. Australian universities are returning to traditional methods of assessments of pen and paper due to students being caught using AI to write essays.

Lecturers within the UK have been urged to look at the way courses are assessed due to concerns over the AI tool. Could UK universities be next to ban the software?

Academic Plagiarism 

Accuracy Of Content

If you’ve already used ChatGPT, you may have noticed that it’s not able to answer every single prompt that you type in.

This is because its data only goes up to 2021 so it currently only has knowledge of the world and events before this time, and it also is able to reject inappropriate requests.

Further limitations of ChatGPT is that it occasionally generates incorrect information as it’s not a search engine, which means it doesn’t search the internet for information and instead uses data to produce responses.

So, of course this can lead to a very inaccurate essay submission. Artificial intelligence softwares like ChatGPT cannot replace human creativity (just yet)!

Accuracy Of Content chatGPT

Crisis To Learning

Aside from the risks involved with academic plagiarism from using artificial intelligence software’s, it can also lead to a learning and development crisis because students won’t build critical thinking and problem solving skills.

The skills and knowledge you gain from writing assignments and essays at university are not only a way to grade work and determine academic capability, they’re also knowledge and practice which will be carried into the working world following graduation.

At the end of the day, in the majority of cases students are the ones paying for their own education so as the saying goes, you’re only kidding yourself by using AI to write assignments.

Writing for exams and other assessments will remain a necessary skill, even though AI is here to stay.

We’re not suggesting the use of artificial intelligence softwares like ChatGPT is completely negative, as it’s all down to how they’re used, but it can be problematic.

crisis to learning chatgpt

Moderate Use

We all know the phrase everything’s good in moderation, and it applies in this instance too.

Using artificial intelligence softwares for research purposes can be great, but one must ask themselves what skills are gained from copying and pasting AI produced content for a degree that is meant to broaden the mind?

Is it really worth the money spent on tuition fees? Perhaps this method of cheating on academic writing may even fill us with guilt, or at least lead to awkward situations in the future?

We’d suggest if you’re going to use artificial intelligence, to use it wisely. It can be a great way to get the spark going, or save some time on repetitive writing, or help with brainstorming ideas on keywords or topics for the slightly less-creative minds out there.

We’d say use and learn from software’s such as ChatGPT, but make sure not to rely on them.

moderate use of chatgpt

Does The Education System Need To Adapt?

Artificial intelligence may place many implications on global education systems, but it can undeniably be a useful tool which can help modernise academia, rather than ruin it.

As technology develops, so does how we’re taught and how we learn. If we take a look at how technology has revolutionised the UK education system for Gen-Z, do you remember the first time electrical whiteboards were introduced into your primary school? Or when you were first taught about virtual learning environments in high school?

We wouldn’t have been able to achieve effective learning during the pandemic without the use of technology and online resources either. Whilst it may be a completely different ball game with the developments in artificial intelligence, these types of software could be used to aid learning rather than threaten it.

In the years to come, artificial intelligence is only going to become more modernised and develop further, so isn’t it best for entrepreneurial GenZs to get on board with it as early as possible? Should universities and academic institutions learn to coexist with artificial intelligence technologies?

From an academic perspective, there’s no denying there are plenty of possibilities. Artificial intelligence software’s may be immensely useful tools, and allow students the ability to write quickly and effortlessly, but it doesn’t mean they come without consequence.

education system chatgpt

Perhaps educating students on how to effectively use artificial intelligence software’s in a way which isn’t plagiarism or impacts their learning and critical thinking is the starting point for educators. 

Whilst AI certainly works for writing assignments, it doesn’t mean the pros outweigh the cons. It’s important that students understand the risks and implications from using AI tools in academia. 

If you’re caught using ChatGPT in your assignments the consequences can be serious, including impacting your university status. Is a quick and easy fix from writing your assignments or essays yourself worth the consequences?

On the hunt for the ideal assignment help? Check out our order page.

Credits – Homes For Students 

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i SGS Thesis/Dissertation/Project Handbook UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION, WINNEBA School of Graduate Studies (SGS) SGS Thesis/Dissertation/Project Handbook: A Guide to the Preparation, Submission and Completion of Degree Requirement

Download the Guide Here – SGS-ThesisDissertationProject-Handbook-final-23-05-2019.pdf
SGS Thesis/Dissertation/Project Handbook


School of Graduate Studies (SGS)

SGS Thesis/Dissertation/Project Handbook:

A Guide to the Preparation, Submission and
Completion of Degree Requirement




March 2018

SGS Thesis/Dissertation/Project Handbook

Copyright © 2018 UEW School of Graduate Studies.

Published on the Authority of the School of Graduate Studies Board
(SGSB) on behalf of Academic Board, UEW.

School of Graduate Studies Board

School of Graduate Studies

University of Education, Winneba

P. O. Box 25

Faculty Block, 3rd Floor, North Campus


Printed in 2018 by UEW Printing Press, Winneba.

Cover Design and Layout by Stephen Osei Akyiaw

President ,GRASAG-UEW(2016-2017)

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored
in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,
electronically, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without
the prior written permission of the author.

SGS Thesis/Dissertation/Project Handbook


The University of Education, Winneba owes an enormous debt of
gratitude to Professor Mawutor Avoke who initiated the review of the
policy document, and also to the following Review Committee members
who assisted in reviewing the document; Prof. Jonathan O. Ammah, Prof.
Cosmas W. K. Mereku Prof. Augustine Y. Quarshigah, Mr. Viscount B.
Buer, the University Librarian; Prof. George Kankam, Dean, School of
Graduate Studies. Mr. Ben Duadze, and Mr. Kennth Abban, Senior
Assistant Registrar, SGS

We wish also to acknowledge the immeasurable support of Dr. Jim
Weiler, Dr. Frimpong K. Duku, and Mr. Francis Donkor, Dean, Faculty of
Vocational Education.

SGS Thesis/Dissertation/Project Handbook

SGS Thesis/Dissertation/Project Handbook








What Exactly is a Thesis/Dissertation/Project? 1



1.1 Preliminary Pages or Front Matter 2

1.2.0 Briefs on Preliminaries or Front Matter 3

1.2.1 Cover of the Thesis/Dissertation/Project 3

1.2.2 Fly Leaf 6

1.2.3 Title Page 6

1.2.4 Declaration Information 9

1.2.5 Dedication 10

1.2.6 Acknowledgement(s) 10

1.2.7 Table of Contents 10

1.2.8 List of Tables 11

1.2.9 List of Figures/Plates 11

1.2.10 Glossary/Abbreviations 11

1.2.11 Abstract 11

1.3.0 Typical Thesis/Dissertation/Project Structure 13

1.3.1 Studies Using Quantitative Methodology 13

1.3.2 Studies Using Qualitative Methodology 14

1.3.3 Model-Building Studies 15

1.3.4 Case Studies 15

1.4.0 Briefs on Main Body Components 16

1.4.1 The Dissertation Title 16

1.4.2 Chapter One: Introduction 16

1.4.3 Chapter Two: Literature Review 17

1.4.4 Chapter Three: Research Methodology / Materials and Methods 17

1.4.5 Chapter Four: Results/Findings 17

1.4.6 Chapter Five: Discussion 18

1.4.7 Chapter Six: Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations 18

SGS Thesis/Dissertation/Project Handbook

1.4.8 References 18

1.5.0 Appendices and Supplemental Materials 18

1.5.1 Appendices 19

1.5.2 Supplemental Materials 20

1.5.3 UEW Link to Online Sources 21



2.1 Paper Quality and Size 23

2.2 Font Type and Size 23

2.3 Page Margins 23

2.4 Paragraph Style 23

2.5.0 Heading Levels 24

2.5.1 Chapter Titles 24

2.5.2 Chapter Headings or Labels 24

2.5.3 Sectional Headings 24

2.5.4 Sub-sectional Headings 25

2.5.5 Sub-sub-sectional Headings 25

2.5.6 Numbering Headings 25

2.6.0 Pagination 26

2.6.1 Preliminary Pages 26

2.6.2 Main Body and Appendices 26



3.1 The Soft Bound Copy of the Thesis 27

3.2 Front Cover Inscriptions 27

3.3 Number of Copies Required for Submission 27

3.4 Submission for PARO’s Format Review 28

3.5 The Hard Bound Copy of the Thesis 28

3.5.1 Colour of Cover for Degree Categories 28

3.5.2 Front Cover Inscriptions 29

3.5.3 The Spine Title Inscription 29

3.6 Binding Musical Composition 31



4.1 Necessity 32

4.2 Relation of Tables or Figures and Text 32

4.3 Documentation 33

SGS Thesis/Dissertation/Project Handbook

4.4 Integrity and Independence 33

4.5 Organization, Consistency and Coherence 33

4.6 Tables Checklist 33

4.7 Examples of Table 34

4.8 Specific Types of Tables 35 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Tables 35 Regression 36 Notes in Tables 37 Tables from Other Sources 38

4.2.0 FIGURES 39

4.2.1 Figure Checklist 39

4.2.2 Types of Figures 39

4.2.3 Musical Scores and Excerpts 44

4.2.4 Preparing Figures / Examples 45

4.2.5 Captions and Legends 45



5.1 Overview 46

5.2 Details of a Reference List 48

5.3 Typical Example of a Reference List: 49

5.4 In-text citation 51

5.5 Referencing sources within the text 51

5.6 Electronic items 52

5.7 Referencing secondary sources 53

5.8 Different works of the same author name 54

5.9 Books and book chapters 55

5.9.1 Single author 55

5.9.2 Two authors 55

5.9.3 Three to five authors 55

5.9.4 Six or more authors 56

5.9.5 No author 56

5.9.6 Edited book 56

5.9.7 Chapter, article or section in a book 57

5.9.8 Chapter or article in an edited book 57

5.9.9 E-book 57

5.10 Journal articles, newspaper articles and conference papers 58

5.10.1 Journal article (print version) 58

5.10.2 Journal article (full text from electronic database) 58

SGS Thesis/Dissertation/Project Handbook

5.10.3 Non-English journal article translated into English 59

5.11 Newspaper article 59

5.11.1 Available in print 59

5.11.2 Newspaper article (from electronic database) 59

5.12 Article (from the Internet, not available in print version) 59

5.13 Proceedings of meetings and symposiums, conference papers 60

5.14 Systematic reviews 60

5.15 Audio recording 60

5.16 Australian Bureau of Statistics (AusStats) 61

5.17 Brochure 61

5.18 Government report (online) 61

5.19 Image on the Internet 62

5.20 Lecture (unpublished) / personal communication 62

5.21 Podcast (from the Internet) 62

5.22 Thesis 63

5.23 Video Recording, television broadcast or episode in a series 63

5.24 Video (from the Internet) 63

5.25 Web page / document on the internet 64

5.26 Abbreviations in Citations 65



6.1.0 Final Thesis/Dissertation/Project Submission Deadlines 66

6.1.1 Planning to Meet April Congregation 66

6.1.3 Planning to Meet November Congregation 67

6.1.5 Submitting for External/Internal Examiners’ Evaluation 68

6.2.0 The Oral Defense 69

6.2.1 Helpful Hints: Prior to the Oral Defense 69

6.2.2 During the Oral Defense 71

6.2.3 After the Oral Defense 73

6.2.4 A Typical Oral Defense Programme Outline 73

6.3.0 Oral Examination Grade and Report 75

6.3.1 Oral Defense Grading 75

6.3.2 Final Oral Defense Examination Report and Thesis Revisions 75

6.3.3 Clearance to Bind the Final Hard Bound Copy 76

6.3.4 Post-Defense Hard Bound Copy Submission 77

6.3.5 Submitting the Thesis/Dissertation/Project to the University Library 77

6.3.6 Thesis/dissertation/project Embargo 78


SGS Thesis/Dissertation/Project Handbook



PARO Forms and Information Sheet 81


Sample Thesis/Dissertation Gantt chart for Masters and Doctoral Programmes 82

SGS Thesis/Dissertation/Project Handbook


Table 1: A Frequency Table Showing the Girl-Child’s Relationship to the
Parent ……………………………………………………………………………… 34

Table 2: Sample ANOVA Table ……………………………………………………… 36

Table 3: Regression Table ……………………………………………………………… 37

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                      POLICY BRIEF TEMPLATE

                        No more than 2-4 pages, 1500 words



  • Audience research –who am I writing for and why
  • Decide on key message and approach
  • Do a SWOT analysis – what are the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats surrounding the research issue.


Executive Summary


·        A one or two sentence overview of the brief that entices readers to go further




·        Answer the question why is the topic important, why should people care

·        Answer the question what were the goals of the research and overall findings

·        Create curiosity about the rest of the brief


Approaches and Results


·        Summarize facts, issues and context

·        Reduce detail to only what reader needs to know

·        Provide concrete facts or examples to support assertions




  • Base conclusions on results
  • Aim for concrete conclusions and strong assertions.


Implications and Recommendations


  • State clearly what could or should happen next.



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Nursing Research & Evidence-Based Practice

central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs

Nursing Research & Evidence-Based Practice NUR 561


In researching the topic of central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), writer completed an online search for relevant articles to the topic. Articles selected were a quantitative and a qualitative article on CLABSI and prevention of CLABSI. This paper is based on the five-peer reviewed article on CLABSIs and CLABSIs prevention. CLABSI is considered a blood stream infection which is confirmed primarily by laboratory work (Sacks et al., 2014). CLABSI is a bloodstream infection that happens to the patient who has central line within 48 hours of insertion and is not related to an infection from another site (CDC, 2016). In general, CLABSI happens when there is a possibility of not correctly inserting the central venous line (CVL) or not monitoring or supervising the site after the insertion and not adhering to CLABSI protocol. It is one of the major blood stream infection with the increased morbidity and mortality rates of 10 to 20 % (Morrison, 2012). It cost a lot of money to the U.S. healthcare system and thousands of deaths in America, yet it is preventable healthcare associated infections just by implementing CLABSI bundle (CDC, 2016).

PICOT Question

The Evidence Based Practice research PICOT Question to be addressed: Does having a CLABSI prevention/elimination team who are dedicated to supervise entire central line insertion in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and CLABSI bundle protocol as opposed to bedside ICU nurse be responsible to implement the CLABSI-related preventive measures for the purpose of reducing the risk of CLABSI?

P- Patients admitted in ICU

I- Having a CLABSI team to supervise the central line insertion

C- Bedside ICU nurses responsible to maintain and prevent CLABSI

O- Decreased rate of CLABSIs

T- During ICU stay

Keywords: Compliance, CLABSI bundles, Guidelines, CLABSI prevention, CLABSI

Literature Review

According to the article by Furuya et al., (2016), CLABSI is a condition that can be prevented. The intention of this study was to assess the compliance with the central line insertion bundle overall in US. The research method involved cross-sectional design involving National sample of adult ICUs participating in National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance (Furuya et al., 2016). The overall study involved 984 adult ICUs in 632 hospital (Furuya et al., 2016). The results of the study showed that only 69 percent of the US hospitals reported compliance with the set regulations to prevent CLABSI. It is therefore evident that compliance to the stipulated guidelines is not strictly followed. According to Furuya et al., compliance is the most effective method of preventing CLABSI. Most of the healthcare organization and healthcare centers are aware regarding the guidelines recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Center of disease Control to presents the central line associated blood steam infections in ICU’s settings. This article by Furuya et al. (2016), is based on a qualitative study which is focused on the mutli-center research on the prevention and elimination of the CLABSI. This articles also focuses on why some of the hospital are more diligent on preventing the CLABSI than other despite the guidelines provided by national mandates. Research was conducted in 250 hospitals with the mean CLABSI rate of 2.1 per 1000 CVL (Furuya et al., 2016). Among them only 49 % reported to have a written CLABSI bundle policy (Furuya et al., 2016). Even on those who monitored compliance, only 38 % were highly compliant with the CLABSI bundle (Furuya et al., 2016). In this research, first the hospital’s infection preventionist was questioned by phone and then in person interviewed was conducted. On this research there was a use of snowball sampling to conduct the phone interview, in person interviews. The phone interview and in person interview was conducted on the epidemiologists, Physicians, unit managers, nurses in the ICU’s unit. After the interview it was identified that most of the organization had the common challenges to implement the CLABSI protocol in their organizations. There were basically four common challenges which were discussed by all the healthcare organization. The four challenges were the politics, culture, structure, and emotions. Politics meaning the relationship among the employee on the unit, culture as a values and beliefs which were shared by the employee, structure meaning some factors which are affecting the quality improvements projects, and lastly emotions as the level of commitment and passion shared on the unit (Furuya et al., 2016). After analyzing the article, it has been noted that those hospital who had a higher score on the culture and emotion were also the ones who were more committed and passionate about fostering change, improving implementation,  and collaborating more quality improvement projects. On the other hand, those hospital who did not score high on the four challenges were also found to be not having favorable environment for change.  The proposed study will close a gap in knowledge as it identifies that for effective implementation and collaboration of CLABSIs’ prevention plan, plan dissemination was deciphered as a prodigious step. From this article it has been found that the effect of implementing the CLABSI bundle protocol and educating nurses has a significant impact on reducing the CLABSI and associated infection as the p value was 0.015 (P = 0.015), incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.77, 95% confidence interval and  (β = -1.029, p = 0.015).As we know that the p value less then .05 is significant and that we reject the null hypothesis of stating that there is no difference. The result indicated that there was a significant difference in reduction of CLABSI infection when the CLABSI bundles protocol were implemented and education were provided to the ICU employees on CLABSI. As a plan disseminating for the quality improvement was to meet the guidelines evidence-based practice research and implementing a Vascular Care Team (VCT) to monitor the CLABSI bundle protocol. Normally time frame for these kinds of projects will be three months. On a timely basis meeting were conducted between nurses and CLABSI team to monitor the progress towards prevention of the CLABSI.

The research study by Park et al. (2017) was conducted in a community hospital which was based on the qualitative analysis of midline catheter and central line care that were provided by medical-surgical nurses. Most of the community hospitals are not equipped with the required tools or had experience with preventative measure which are needed to fight central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). In this research, the researcher has utilized the phenomenological framework and the methods of exploration was the interview process (Park et al., 2017). The study was approved by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention institutional review board (IRB) and the New Jersey Department of Health’s IRB use in this analysis (Park et al., 2017). Consents were obtained from qualified participants. No human harm was noted on this study as it is an education study and was conducted by interviewing process. The researcher on this research study conducted 45-minute interview with the medical-surgical nurses on the medical-surgical units that has the highest rate of CLABSI. This research studies were basically focused on the nurse’s perspective at central line care. Fifteen medical surgical nurses were interviewed from the medical surgical units who had highest’s incidence of CLABSI who were working as fulltime. After the interview process various challenges emerges out. The biggest challenge was to follow the correct procedure along with CLABSI prevention. Also, nurses did not have high exposure with CLABSI and patient with CLABSI. 15 nurses identified that there is a need for education concentrating on the central line care and CLABIs prevention training. As, a teaching strategy, nurses who were seasoned and experienced related to CLABSI were brought to the community hospital to guide the nurses. As a result, plan was created which was based on the experiences nurses experience and when implemented decreased the CLABSI rate. This article focuses on the prevention of infection from the nurses prospective who were working nurse in a community hospital.  This article explores the interventions that can be implemented to prevent CLABSI. The article highlights that the condition can be prevented if healthcare organizations take the necessary preventive measures. This data collection methods involved exploring the impacts of overall intervention implemented by peer tutoring which involved 1000 days of continuous tutoring. The results of the research showed that CLABSI decreased from 6.9 infections in the pre-intervention period to 2.4 and 1.8 in the intervention (Park et al., 2017). This article focused on the CLABSI rate for 9 months pre-intervention, 6 months during the intervention and 9 months post-intervention. SPSS 22.0 was utilized to conduct the statistical analysis for this article. It has been found from this research that CLABSI rate decreased from 6.9 infections in the pre-intervention phase to 2.4 and 1.8 in the intervention period of 6 months with P value being 0.102 (p= 0.102) per 1000 catheters per 9-month period (Park et al., 2017). The researcher used the regression model to show the significant difference between the pre intervention and post intervention drop rate in CLABSI where the P value was  less than 0.001 (P < 0.001). As mentioned above P value less than 0.05 is considered to be statistically significant and shows the difference preintervention and postintervention of applying the CLABSI bundles and education provided to the nurses and we reject the null hypothesis stating there will be no difference in pre intervention of applying CLABSI bundle and post intervention of CLABSI bundles. Hence, this research showed significant increase in CLABSI when there was no peer tutoring. To close the gap in knowledge, the article highlights that without peer tutoring interventions, the rate of CLABSI infections can increased again. From this article it has been noted that in order to prevent the CLABSI, healthcare organization need to concentrate on clinical reasoning and preventative actions. This article can be used in healthcare organizations to explain the importance of peer tutoring towards the prevention of CLABSI.

The research by Blot et al. (2014) is based on systematic review and meta-analysis of the interventions taken to prevent CLABSI. The article sought to determine whether central line–associated bloodstream infections. The research method involves analysis of the previously done studies from 1995–June 2012 (Blot et al., 2014). CLABSI per 1,000 catheter-days, CLABSI per 1,000 inpatient-days, and catheter utilization rates were identified in this article. Maryland Health Care Commission (MHCC) measured the objectives and difficulties of reporting data publicly and has approved this study (Blot et al., 2014). The research was conducted in a five adult ICUs at a regional teaching hospital, that has 63 ICU beds. The CLABSI bundle was introduced to ICU which has four components: hand hygiene, sterile technique upon insertion, use of chlorohexidine wipes for skin preparations, and avoidance of the femoral vein as the access site (Blot et al., 2014). The research was conducted for 10-month period over 18,656 inpatient-days and 9,388 catheter-days (Blot et al., 2014). In this research 687 CVL insertions on 481 patients were performed (Blot et al., 2014). Consents were obtained from qualified participants and no human harm was noted on this study as it is an education study and was conducted by interviewing process. The results of the study show that CLABSI have decreased significantly over the years due the use of CLABSI bundles and education regarding CLABSI. A ratio of 95% confidence intervals proved that CLABSI can be prevented (Blot et al., 2014). Hence, from the article, quality improvement interventions are crucial in preventing CLABSI. Continuous quality improvement can be used to close the gap in knowledge on how to implement continuous quality improvement in ICU. This article by studied a visual design of information from widely-reported central line-associated blood stream infection (CLABSI) ending data for generating decisions by different target individuals, health care customers and professionals. In deciding on the best way to openly document CLABSI data results Maryland Health Care Commission (MHCC) measured the objectives and difficulties of reporting data publicly and has approved this study (Blot et al., 2014). The visual view of quantitative knowledge explains data for customers and health care professionals for creating decisions. The purpose of visual design, to systematize the information for relaying a message successfully, can be achieved by prioritizing, combining, and arranging the information appropriately. The study used formative methods with several groups to verify the choices that the researchers did to obtain the members, and they employed an extensive cross section of the intended user populations. The researchers confirmed visualizations that were accepted and publicly organized for customers and health care professionals in Maryland. This article recognizes that in order to expedite the CLABSI prevention program, a peer-reviewed research framework which assimilates evidence into practices is really crucial. This article focused on systematic review and meta-analysis examines to find out the impact of quality improvement interventions on central line-associated bloodstream infections in ICU patient. Also, the researcher used the Meta-regression which assessed the impact of CLABSI bundle interventions and high baseline rate on intervention effect. From this article it has been found that the effect of implementing the CLABSI bundle protocol and educating nurses has a significant impact on reducing the CLABSI and associated infection as the p value was .03 (P = .03). As we know that the p value less then .05 is significant and that we reject the null hypothesis of stating that there is no difference. The result indicated that there was a significant difference in reduction of CLABSI infection when the CLABSI bundles protocol were implemented and education were provided to the ICU employees on CLABSI.

According to the article by Chopra et al. the main objective was to research on effective evidence-based care to prevent CLABSI infections among ICU patients. The article notes that Central Venous Catheters (CVC) play a central role in preventing the infections. The method of data collection involved 34 evidence-based studies done previously to identify causes and prevention of CLABSI (Chopra et al., 2013). Moreover, review was conducted in accordance with the protocol proposed by the Federal University of São Paulo. 1,485 studies were initially selected but only 34 studies were considered necessary for this study (Chopra et al., 2013). The results from the study showed that interventions such as hand hygiene and maximal barrier precautions are effective in preventing CLABSI among ICU patients. Therefore, the article concludes that that commitment of stuff plays a crucial role in preventing CLABSI. This article is can be used to seal the gap by teaching members of the staff how to commit themselves in preventing CLABSI. This article by Chopra et al. (2013) is a crossover randomized prospective pilot study of central venous catheter (CVC) team intervention in comparison to standard care. Consents were obtained from qualified participants and no human harm was noted on this study as it is an education study and was conducted by interviewing process. In most cases, treatment for children suffering from cancer includes chemotherapy that is delivered via CVC. Although the CVC is a reliable source for delivering chemotherapy, it increases the risk of bloodstream infections (BSIs). The study takes place in a children’s hospital with the focus on two inpatient oncology units with 41 patients in the experiential unit and 41 in the control unit. The study compares patients who receive CVC blood draw bundle by nurses on the CVC team experimental interventions versus standard care from a bedside nurse. In the six-month study, a significant difference was seen in the CVC team and standard care by the bedside nurse related to risk of BSIs. In determining the effectiveness of the CVC team, a larger cohort group is needed.  While the use of CVC is pervasive, most studies related to CLABSIs are done in the adult population. This article provides data related to CLABSIs in the pediatric population. A vascular team needs to be created to monitor the CLABSI protocol and to calculate the data of CLABSI. The vascular team will be conducting he seminar, meetings, and creation of the EBP bundles for the elimination of CLABSI. A vascular team should be created to monitor the CLABSI protocol and to calculate the data of CLABSI. The vascular team will be conducting he seminar, meetings, and creation of the EBP bundles for the elimination of CLABSI. Vascular team was providing PowerPoint presentation, webinar, websites and handouts regarding the prevention of CLABSI to educate nurses and empower them on CLABSI bundle protocol. In this research the pre intervention and post intervention of education and CLABSI bundles drastically decreased the rate of CLABSI from 3.9 per 1,000 catheter days to 1.0 per 1,000 catheter days. Also, in this research study the P value was 0.000 which is less than 0.5 and is considered to be statistically significant as the (P< 0.001).

According to the article by Sacks et al. (2014), a central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) develops within 48 hours of the line placement. This article is based on the research done to investigate pathogens associated with CLABSI. The research method involved analysis done from October 2011 to September 2012, with the intention of identifying the infectious causing agents associated with CLABSI. This article investigated the effect of the effect of implementing a checklist for the placement of central venous lines (CVL). Participants were  assigned to the checklist group either control or experimental in a 1:2 ratio (Sacks et al., 2014). In this research the frequency of CLABSI was compared in control and experimental groups. In this study total of 4416 CVL were inserted; 1518 were from checklist group and 2898 participants were in the control group (Sacks et al., 2014).This article explains that the use of checklist during CVL placement has caused lowered incidence of CLABSI frequency. Consents were obtained from qualified participants. There was no human harm noted as the education conducted was online and screenings were performed during routine exams. The results of the study showed that majority of infections were caused by staphylococci 34.1 percent, enterococci16 percent, and Staphylococcus aureus, 9.9 percent (Sacks et al., 2014). The article concludes that the action taken by healthcare organizations to prevent CLABSI like use of antibiotics, echinocandins and parenteral vancomycin which is an antibiotic intervention. The knowledge from the article is useful to medical practitioners working in ICU. The recommendations provided can prevent CLABSI. The study by  (Sacks et al., 2014). was based on a two-year case matched controlled retrospective study of central line associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) in an urban trauma service. The population consisted of 6014 admissions to the trauma service. The case reviewed 105 case-matched controlled groups who did not suffer from CLABSI. There were 35 CLABSI catheters that were identified, 25 out of 35 documented breaks in sterile technique, and 16 catheters were placed in intensive care unit (ICU). CLABSIs were associated with documented break in sterile technique placed in the ICU setting. Practitioners were encouraged to increase awareness and education to adhere to strict sterile precautions. An emphasis was put on the use of CLABSI bundle and education on CLBASI prevention. Research was approved by the Department of Intensive Care Medicine at the University Medical Center Hamburg–Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. Independent variable: Catheterize patients, dependent variables: CLABSI infections (Sacks et al., 2014). The researcher in this article have utilized the SPSS 22.0 has a data analysis method which is mostly used for quantitative data. The researcher noted that the rate of CLABSI per catheter days reduced 19/3,784 to 3/1,870 after implementation and collaboration of the CLABSI protocol Bundle. It was also noted that the p value was 0.02, which is statistically significant value. P value in this research study was less then .05, (p=0.02), p <0.05). With the CLABSI bundle and education intervention, CLABSI rate decreased from 3.9 per 1,000 catheter days to 1.0 per 1,000 catheter days. Also, in this research study the P value was 0.000 which is less than 0.5 and is considered to be statistically significant as the (P= 0.02),and (b = −0.505, χ2 (1) = 4.20) (Sacks et al., 2014). We can conclude that we can reject the null hypothesis and state that there was significant difference noted when CLABSI bundle was applies towards the prevention of the CLABSI. In conclusion, most of the CLABSI identified in the trauma service were related to break in the sterile technique. It is most frequent in the ICU setting. The adherence to proper sterile technique guidelines while placing catheter can help to reduce CLABSI and patient mortality. Also, the CLABSI bundles has been found very effective by various health organizations. As identified in this article, appropriate implementation of the bundle reduces the rate of infections by 38%.


As we all know, there are several comprehensive studies and research done on CLABSI and prevention of CLABSI. The main purpose of this research study is to establish the effect of working as a team on the quest to improve the patient’s safety and prevention of infection in ICU patient. It has been found from different article review that the best way to prevent CLABSI is by developing models, educating bedside nurses, attending seminar, attending continue education based on CLABSI and CLABSI protocol guidelines. The models have to be based on the Evidence Based Research (CDC, 2016).  Knowledge is defined as power (Morrison, 2012). Attending PowerPoint presentation, attending seminar based on the CLABSI and prevention, and keeping communication open on significance of CLABSI prevention was the best way of prevention of CLABSI.  As to test knowledge a competency test should also be conducted on the bedside nurses for competency and knowledge.


Blot, K., Bergs, J., Vogelaers, D., Blot, S., & Vandijck, D. (2014). Prevention of central line–      associated bloodstream infections through quality improvement interventions: a                                  systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Infectious Diseases59(1), 96-105.

CDC National and State Healthcare-Associated Infections Progress Report, (March 2014), retrieved from

Chopra, V., Olmsted, R.N., Krein, S.L., Safdar, N., & Saint, S. (2013). Prevention of central line-            associated bloodstream infections: Brief update review in making health care safer II: An             updated critical analysis of the evidence for patient safety practices. Rockville (MD):

 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US), No. 211(10).  doi: 10.1007/s11606-    011-1935-y.

Furuya, E. Y., Dick, A. W., Herzig, C. T., Pogorzelska-Maziarz, M., Larson, E. L., & Stone, P.                W. (2016). Central line–associated bloodstream infection reduction and bundle                                   compliance in intensive care units: a national study. infection control & hospital                                   epidemiology37(7), 805-810.

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setting. Clinical Nurse Specialist, 26(6), 323-328.

Park, S. W., Ko, S., An, H. S., Bang, J. H., & Chung, W. Y. (2017). Implementation of central                 line-associated bloodstream infection prevention bundles in a surgical intensive care unit                     using peer tutoring. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control6(1), 103.

Sacks, G. D., Diggs, B. S., Hadjizacharia, P., Green, D., Salim, A., & Malinoski, D. J. (2014).

Reducing the rate of catheter-associated bloodstream infections in a surgical intensive care unit using the Institute for Healthcare Improvement Central Line Bundle. The American Journal of Surgery, 207(6), 817-823.