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Sensor technology


Team Andrews-Final Report BUSN – 460


Executive Summary


Sensors are sophisticated devices that are used to detect and respond to electrical or optical signals. ( They are used to convert the measure of physical aspects into a signal that can be measured electrically. They are used in the healthcare industry, the military, cars, wearable technology, cell phones, and so on. The sensor industry is expected to grow to $162 billion in 2019. (TechRepublic, 2016).

Sensor technology is constantly evolving and is one of the fastest growing industries there is, as well as the most profitable. A common goal for sensors is for cutting edge technology to deliver improved functionality through the sensor. Whether this is optical sensors used by the military to detect threats, motion sensors used in a cars brakes to prevent an accident, or an image sensor used in a camera. Another common desire when it comes to sensors is the ability to make them smaller, lower costing, with better wireless connectivity. (Grand View Research).

Bosch Sensortec is one of the biggest sensor companies there is. They have been producing sensors for years and are now the leading provider of MEMS-based sensors in the consumer electronics market. They are also making sensors and products for wearable technology. Bosch also produces motion sensors. More than 4 million MEMS sensors per day are shipped from their facility in Germany. They produce sensors for everything from cars to cell phones. (Cision, 2015).

A few more major players operating in the industrial sensors market are Rockwell Automation (US), Honeywell (US), Amphenol Corporation (US), Texas Instruments (US), Panasonic (Japan), STMicroelectronics (Switzerland), First Sensor (Germany), and Siemens (Germany). Rockwell delivers a wide range of solutions and services for applications such as food & beverages, life sciences, oil & gas, mining, cement, metals, pulp & paper, and water & wastewater. The company offers start-to-end industrial services to its end users. The available solutions offer the company an advantage over its competitors for increased growth. The company adopts both organic and inorganic growth strategies. In the last 3 years, Rockwell Automation offered 2 products related to the industrial sensors segment. (Markets and Markets)

By the year 2023, the sensor market is on path to be a 241-billion-dollar industry. The different market segments within the sensor industry is divided by the type of sensor, the technology used, the industry they are used for, and geography. There has been a recent surge in Research & Development into sensors from some very large corporations such as STMicroelectronics, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., and Sony. The interest from these companies will lead to sensors improvement in both quality and efficiency. (Allied Market Research).

Some obvious strengths of these companies are the very large amount of resources they have. The large corporations who make millions of sales per day have more money to invest into their products. They have the manpower to continue to research the latest and greatest technology for their sensors. This also includes the ability to use the most efficient technology to make their sensors with a quick turnaround time. They also have the means to advertise as much as they need to in order to drive up product awareness. One weakness is the fact that there are so many of these large corporations wanting to produce the latest and greatest sensor. Having so many competitors will possibly drive down the price, which would be beneficial to the consumer, but not to their profit margins.

One thing is for certain, sensors are here to stay. The sensor industry is one of the fastest growing markets and they are only going to get bigger and more profitable.  Consumers are using sensors in a wide variety of products from their cars and phones, to their wearable technology. There is also a huge trend in converting your home into a smart home which is made possible with the use of sensors. The possibilities are endless with sensors.

Communication is key to success. Creative input is encouraged from every team member on the project. It’s very important for a team to define and delegate goals and stick to them, knowing everyone’s part and responsibilities. Ineffective communication has proven to be a barrier that many teams face within a group. The inability to converse in a language that is not understood by both the sender and receiver seems to be the greatest barrier to effective communication.

Team Andrews has had its downfalls within the first weeks. With so many different things going on with each one of us, including the fact that Capsim is new to all, has caused some setbacks, but nothing that the team can’t handle. We are getting to know each other and even though we are in different time zones and have different schedules, we are coming together focusing on our assignments and simulations. We try to get on it by the beginning of the week, that way we know what we need to do individually and have plenty of time to achieve. We have been in contact mostly by text and email.

Like any business, for it to be successful, all departments have to work together.  The same concept goes for teamwork. By the same token, our team seems to work in concert.  We often contribute equally on given assignments.  Thus far, our assignments have never been later. Each week we each take turns on uploading the decisions, but we can’t seem to pass a certain point. As for how or what we can improve, I would suggest that as individuals we must each continue to watch videos and practice and hopefully, we’ll get better at Capsim. Otherwise, from that, nothing else needs improvement.


As the weeks go by, the team has a better grasp of the simulations, which we all agree that was the most confusing part of the Team Project. We are communicating more often now that we better understand what the goal is.


The company immediately decided to change its strategy after the mistakes made in 2019. The company performed production audits and realized that there was plant capacity which was unnecessarily left. This analysis led the company to create a new strategy in 2020. Before transitioning to a new strategy, the company was struggling with profits, inventory, contribution margins, and other ratios. In order to recover quickly and perform better, the company decided to sell its existing plant capacity. As the transition took place, the strategic move resulted in improvements in net profits, ROE, ROS, ROA and performed well in other categories. We are expecting the same result in 2021. We also initiated the production of a new product which we expect to perform well in the high-tech market. This will allow the company to designate a product for each low and high-tech companies, improving profits, and market shares. This strategy was able to help the company recover faster; the company knew that they immediately needed to select a permanent strategy in order to improve company’s performance consistently.


The company had to take a $119,748 worth emergency loan in order to facilitate company’s actions. After carefully going through all available numbers, the company realized that they made two wrong decisions. Those two wrong decisions are as follows:

  • Company’s pricing strategy: After going through the prices of the competitors, the company realized that the company has priced its products incorrectly. That is one of the major reasons behind company’s low contribution margin (products are less profitable).
  • Inventory Management: The company forecasted for more sales than occurred, leading to the product’s inventory to build. Excess inventory must be stored, where it remains in the warehouse, instead of being purchased by customers.

The emergency loan was caused by excess inventory in which we had adjusted selling off this inventory We must account for inventory carrying over when setting our production schedule. Our priority should be to try and sell off excess inventory of the product where possible. Regardless of the cause, we kept a close eye on closing cash positions. Projected closing cash positions is a great indicator of emergency loans, but they depend on how accurately we have forecasted. In most cases, forecasting is an extremely difficult task. So, having a small buffer of cash can help avoid future emergency loans.

The company also has cash from Current Debt Borrowing, which means it is a short-term debt. The company is making enough profits to pay off this debt in one payment. At the same time, using these debts have helped increase our net income in comparison to Chester, Erie, and Baldwin. Making Digby our most high-ranking sales position coming in with $224,564 of net income. Chester has sales of common stock of $2,000 but Digby has the upper hand with $3,600 while the rest of the teams are at $0. The long-term debt that has been issued is under Digby for about $6,163 and another $3,000 on Chester, which will retire in the next round, hoping not to borrow Emergency Loan money.


Overall the report so far is as follows.

For sales: The industry average for Sales was $122,640. 4 out of 6 teams earned stars. The top Sales performer was Digby: $224,564. The bottom Sales performer was Ferris: $18,312.

Team Andrews sales were $105,526


Profit: The industry average for Profit was $21,763. 5 out of 6 teams earned stars. The top Profit performer was Digby: $42,883. The bottom Profit performer was Ferris: ($51).

Team Andrews Profits were $23,268


Contribution Margin:  The industry average for Contribution Margin was 35.6%. 3 out of 6 teams earned stars. The top Contribution Margin performer was Digby: 43.0%. ​ The bottom Contribution Margin performer was Ferris: 17.4%. ​

Team Andrews Contributions were 40.78%


Stock Price: The industry average for Stock Price was $88.22. 5 out of 6 teams earned stars. The top Stock Price performer was Digby: $135.87​ The bottom Stock Price performer was Ferris: $27.78.  Team Andrews Stock Price was $63.97


Emergency Loans:  Team Andrews had Emergency Loans for:

Year 5: $118,328

Year 6: $50,328

Year 7: $31,181

With a gross total of $119,748 at the end of the simulation.




The team has been working hard in trying to change our strategy to have better outcomes and acquiring better numbers in upcoming rounds. The company is already seeing positive changes and progress.


What must be updated since you originally created that document? What have you learned?

There is not too much that team Andrews would change to achieve our deliverables of the project as well as our CAPSIM simulations. As stated in our team charter though, everyone has picked up additional tasks during that time and those that were occupied elsewhere have stepped up to do more than average work the following week.  During our weekly meetings there is a great deal of discussions that take place allowing some to answer questions about why we are making the decisions we are for the company and then it is a group effort to answers those questions. Our overall project is progressing a bit slower than the simulations as we continue to struggle to find solid statistics for the sensors we discovered.  We are all working to build that information for the end project.


We wanted to provide the sensor industry with premium products. Therefore, we wanted to create a brand focused on premium products by focusing to serve high tech customers. This means we would be creating 1 updated product at the end of each year. This was to meet high-tech customer demands. Also, our products must keep in pace with the market in order to capture the high-tech market segment. By playing around in the simulation we did not change our focus target segment, but we kept on playing with developing R&D, marketing, production as well as finances.


Porter’s Generic Strategy: Which strategy did your team choose initially, and how did it change as the course moved on?

We adapted Niche Differentiation strategy, which allowed us to particularly focus on High tech customers segment. This allowed us to gain a competitive edge by distinguishing our products to be most updates, fresh, high quality, high awareness, as well as high accessibility. We have developed our R&D such that we are able to come out with a new product at the end of each year, which helped keeping our design fresh and kept our customers excited in buying our products. We tried to focus more on reducing the size and improving performance so that we can perform well on the R&D of our products. We priced our products higher than average. We gradually kept increasing our prices when we came out with an updated product. We gradually changed the capacity with increasing demand during each of our competition rounds. We tried creating a brand with premium products and we are going to ace it.


Target Market: Which of the two market segments did your team choose initially, and what has happened since?

We did not try to focus more on being present on every segment. We tried to focus on High tech customer segment, which is very famous for electronic industry. Since we are focused on creating sensors, we focused and targeted high-tech customers. High tech customer segment demands products with high quality design and must be produced new and fresh every year and this is how we choose on selling to high tech customers. We priced our products higher than average, but our targeted segment was ready to pay us the price for each updated product we produced. To meet their expectations, we spent more on promotions and sales budgets and increased our chances on automation by lowering our production costs.


Project Plan: How did your team do hit the milestones? What had to be added or should have been added? Did any specific project management skills help in this area?

Our team is performing and coordinating well enough for us to get through the class simulations as well as the course project work. We designed our communication plan and worked on our project more wisely. These steps would help build project proposals, initial request analysis that will determine our business’ team meetings, which helped the team keep updated through group texting as well as WebEx meetings.


Project management is all about working in teams. Our team working skills are above and beyond everyone, which will help us win the competition rounds as well as ace the course.


Conflict Management Plan: Give examples of how this worked for your team.

The team continues to impress me with their dedication and problem-solving skills. Francis is an excellent organizer and communicator, Paul is always willing to take on additional tasks, and Marc is very positive and enthusiastic that he motivates the whole team.

  • Member misses a meeting – Take minutes. documented for their review. We did this for our team members in case they missed a meeting.
  • Member does not complete work on time – Other members takes on their task, while the member missing will take on additional tasks the following week.
  • Member has an unavoidable emergency that delays work- The remaining members team up to complete the task.
  •  How will you resolve minor disagreements? We set up a team meeting to discuss and resolve any conflicts.


Team Rules: Share the team rules and explain how they helped your team.

  • We decided to do the simulations in our team meetings, which helped us perform well and bring solutions for doubts we had on the simulations as well as competition rounds.
  • We focused more on weekly communication so that none of our team members is held back in any portion of the course, whether it be discussion threads, simulations, project milestones, or competition rounds.
  • Team leader monitors our individual performances and notifies each other with any issues or concerns, helping us win as a team. This is how we focus in succeeding as a team in class.
  • As stated in our team charter, others have picked up additional tasks during that time and those that were occupied elsewhere have stepped up to do more than average work the following week.


Ethics: How has your team adhered to ethical principles?

As stated in our team charter, our team is committed to upholding ethical business practices and operating with integrity when it comes to the work submitted for this course by the group. Responsibilities will be divided equally; we will support each other when necessary.  Communication will be effective, efficient and constructive, while being delivered in a positive manner. All work submitted will be original unless properly cited. Decisions will be made with equal input and in a voting manner, if an immediate decision needs to be made, the group leader will intersect the discussion to complete.


Andrews will use the SWOT Model to analyze the company strategies.

Cost leadership on traditional and low-end market segments.

As determined by the market structure, the two market segments taking up the most percentage of market shares are traditional and low-end. Thus, in the first and second year, Andrews’ focus is on the fast penetration of such segments through lowering down variable costs and increasing degree of automation. The cost-focusing strategy allows Andrews to capture second most market shares in the traditional and low-end markets, which in turn enables us to have more capital to invest in R&D in high-end, and performance segments in future years when the growth rate for these two segments advances.

Demand forecasting and swift adjustment to capacity and production

Capacity has come to Andrews notice that demand forecasting could help the company produce the accurate number of products to satisfy demands from different market segments, so managers can have the ability to capture growth opportunities with enough inventory. Demand forecasting is also key to ensure smooth cash flow as Andrews’ can unlock cash that would be otherwise tied up in excess stock resulting from overproduction. Another critical focus is on Andrews’ capability to adjust swiftly to customer demand. As the market share across different segments are not fixed, the total industry unit demands are changing from year to year. Hence, keeping a close watch on the market condition and having the ability to change swiftly, enable the company to adjust capacity and production levels promptly to better serve customer demand.

Management on ROE and ROA

Return on equity (ROE) and return on asset (ROA) are two major indicators to measure company’s profitability and efficiency in using assets. In order to improve both ROE and ROA, we focus on improving sales margins, offering dividends to shareholders, increasing leverage for the company. The benefits of offering dividends is to boost shareholders’ trust and confidence, which in turn increases share value and market capitalization, as well as to serve as a means to distribute the idle cash to maximize ROE and ROA.

We also have tight control on taking loans, especially to the issuance of emergency loans, which could have a negative impact on our cash flow. Our strategy is to take long-term loans in the first few rounds to ensure enough working capital for expanding capacity, automation and raising the sales budget to increase market recognition from potential consumers. Yet we carefully measure the leverage ratio to ensure our company is not over leveraged and thus becomes too risky to meet immediate financial obligations.

Product differentiation and diversification

The high-end and size market segments become growing more prominent in the market structure. Instead of concentrating heavily on price, the underlying factors contributing to the consumers’ buying criteria include product positioning and reliability. Hence, the practice of continuing one-size-for-all undifferentiated strategy and product development is unfit for us to capture the new demands from these nonprice-sensitive segments. Against this background, we adopt product differentiation strategy in a bid to create differentiated products to target at different market segments shaped by distinctive consumer requirements.

Additionally, we strive to diversify our products within the same market segment in order to maximize market share and capture consumers by brand diversification. The most noticeable advantage of having multiple brands within the same segment as it can increase brand exposure and appeal to different buying motives.


Porter’s Five Forces Model


Team Andrews customized version of Porter’s Five Forces model (MindTools, n.d.) with significant application for the purpose of internal competition analysis. However, the sensor industry is an oligopolistic area, industry monopoly, which means that there are no new entrants and external replacements that may threaten Andrew. On the other hand, every company has their own plan of R&D, which means each product has their own characteristic in different companies. This will indicate the bargaining power of the suppliers is low. Due to the characteristic of high-end production, the power of customers is higher than others. Additionally, the internal rivals of threat are high.


What strategic planning recommendations would you make and why?


For the strategic plan, the perfect recommendations are likely required to be made for deciding the specific annual objectives and policies. The companies follow several paths to formulate better strategies so that they can sustain economically longer. The organization is required to set correct objectives for interpreting organizational goals. The objective is the sequential map that is necessary to be correctly decided, as based on the objectives the strategies of work conduction are depending. Therefore, to lead the strategic process for any plan it is necessary to define the objective correctly.

These policies are also an important part of the organization’s strategic plan as the policies are the companies’ guidelines or it can be said rules and regulations that hold the organization to maintain their portfolio to work ethically. To complete the strategic plan, policies boost the organization to maintain a working framework and keep the correct track of work that helps the organization to obtain the positive outcome in terms of growth and development.

Strategy reviews and evaluations are an important process for measuring the correct formulation in the strategic plan. Suppose an organization is working on a defined strategic plan, through its formulation the organization is leading the day to day processes. It is necessary to make a review on the process as the strategy may require any alterations in its design so that a better structure can be implemented. Monitoring or reviewing the strategy may lead to obtaining any flaws that may cause threats to the organization in the future. Therefore, reviewing the strategy that is working on the organizational process is recommended.


The strategic plans of evaluations are necessary to ease future welcoming of critical moments in the organization. These evaluations are based on the following aspects:

  1. Achieved goals as per the organizational needs
  2. Fulfillment of the customer’s needs
  3. Updated the standard as per the market innovation
  4. Monitoring competitors perception value in the market
  5. Observing the growing capabilities and the decline rate

The above evaluations listed are necessary for the correct enabling of strategic plans so the process and work standards can be maintained successfully.


(2015, June 11). Bosch Sensortec: 10 Years of MEMS Sensors Innovation. Retrieved May 26, 2019, from


EngineersGarage. (n.d.). Sensors: Different Types of Sensors. Retrieved May 26, 2019, from   


Sensor Market Analysis, Market Size, Application Analysis, Regional Outlook, Competitive Strategies And Forecasts, 2014 To 2020. (n.d.). Retrieved May 26, 2019, from


Sensor Market by Type. (n.d.). Retrieved May 26, 2019, from


2019 Market and Markets Research LTD, Retrieved on May 26, 2019


(2016). Intro to Business: A Primer Companion text to Capsim Core Business Simulation edition 1. Retrieved from: (Links to an external site.


MindTools. (n.d.) SWOT Analysis: Discover New Opportunities, Manage and Eliminate Threats. Retrieved on June 21, 2019 from


MindTools. (n.d.) Porter’s Five Forces: Understanding Competitive Forces to Maximize Profitability. Retrieved on June 21, 2019 from

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Opioid Addiction with injured Athletes

Opioid Addiction with injured Athletes

Submitted to South University FNP-S, NSG 69999


The consumption of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs has become a concern in high-

performance athletes. Professional athletes are more exposed to drugs than the general

population, they have an active social life and encounter various pressures, which may lead to

greater risk of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine misuse (Millman & Ross, 2003). Although some

drugs are unquestionably detrimental to performance, several studies have nevertheless shown

evidence of increased consumption of these substances within this subpopulation (Brisola dos

Santos et al., 2016). Drug abuse in such individuals may involve doping, in order to obtain a

competitive advantage but can also involve the misuse of substances such as alcohol or cannabis

without the intention of improving performance, thereby developing substance use disorders, just

as any non-athletes. The reasons for athletes using these substances could be the many stressors

to w/hich they are subjected, including the pressure for better (or the best) performance, injuries,

physical pain, and even retirement, which occurs much earlier than in most other careers

(Donohue, Pitts, Gavrilova, Ayarza, & Cintron, 2013). The care of an injured or ill patient may

be the responsibility of only 1 health care provider or a team of many providers. Depending on

where the patient care is given and the patient receiving it, the sports medicine team can include

athletic trainers (ATs), physicians, pharmacists, physical therapists, school nurses, and athletic

training student. Misuse and abuse of prescription opioids in the United States constitute a

public health crisis that has grown to epidemic proportions over the last decade. The Centers for

Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has identified prescription drug abuse and overdose as

one of the top five health threat. When determining the dose of an opioid for acute pain, it is

critically important for clinicians to take into account whether the patient is opioid naive or

opioid tolerant.




Opioid addiction is a long-lasting (chronic) disease that can cause major health, social, and

economic problems. Opioids are a class of drugs that act in the nervous system to produce

feelings of pleasure and pain relief. Some opioids are legally prescribed by healthcare providers

to manage severe and chronic pain. Commonly prescribed opioids include oxycodone, fentanyl,

buprenorphine, methadone, oxymorphone, hydrocodone, codeine, and morphine. Some other

opioids, such as heroin, are illegal drugs of abuse.  The term opium refers to a mixture of

alkaloids from the poppy seed, and the term opiates refers to naturally occurring alkaloids (e.g.,

morphine, codeine). The term opioid refers to all compounds that bind to opioid receptors.

Opioids have been used for thousands of years for the treatment of moderate-to-severe acute

and chronic pain. Opioids provide their pharmacologic effects by binding to opioid receptors

located both within and outside of the central nervous system.




Reports from CDC, the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), and the National Poison Data

System have demonstrated an alarming increase in opioid misuse and abuse over the last two

decades. The prescription of opioids is increasingly recognized as one of the most important

current health problems in the sports field. It can lead to physical and/or mental problems, and

even death (NIDA, 2014; Simoni Wastila, Ritter, & Strickler, 2004). Data from the National

Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) indicate that 12.7% of the population aged 26 and

over have already misused non-prescribed prescription opioids. s. At any one time there are 7.5

million adolescents in the US participating in high-school sports, with an with an anticipated

annual 2 million athletic injuries. A major factor contributing to this crisis is the rate at

which painkillers are being prescribed. The number of prescriptions for opioid painkillers

jumped from 76 million to approximately 207 million between 1991 and 2013. According

to Times Union a startling half-million people have died since 2000 as a result of misusing

painkillers. This issue especially impacts those who play sports. Data shows that 52 percent of

NFL players were exposed to opioids with 71 percent admitting to misuse.




Opioids change the chemistry of the brain and lead to drug tolerance, which means that over time

the dose needs to be increased to achieve the same effect. Taking opioids over a long period of

time produces dependence, such that when people stop taking the drug, they have physical and

psychological symptoms of withdrawal (such as muscle cramping, diarrhea, and anxiety).

Dependence is not the same thing as addiction; although everyone who takes opioids for an

extended period will become dependent, only a small percentage also experience the compulsive,

continuing need for the drug that characterizes addiction. Opioid addiction can cause life-

threatening health problems, including the risk of overdose. Overdose occurs when high

doses of opioids cause breathing to slow or stop, leading to unconsciousness and death

if the overdose is not treated immediately. Both legal and illegal opioids carry a risk of

overdose if a person takes too much of the drug, or if opioids are combined with other

drugs (particularly tranquilizers called benzodiazepines).




Clinical Presentation


Opioid physical dependence develops quickly, and abrupt discontinuation may cause signs and

symptoms such as loss of appetite, anxiety, craving, increased blood pressure and heart rate,

nausea, vomiting, and muscle spasms. sweating, chills, sighs, body pain, diarrhoea, rhinorrhea,

and lacrimation. Opioids include both prescription painkillers Vicodin and OxyContin and the

illicit drug heroin. Signs of opioid abuse include overall sedation, memory issues, inability to

concentrate, slowed reaction times, lethargy and mood swings.





Respiratory depression is the result of opioid toxicity, and supportive care to restore ventilation

and oxygenation is the cornerstone of patient management. Opioid toxicity can be treated with

the competitive m-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone






When patients are being considered for opioid medication, including before surgery, they should

be screened for substance abuse, depression, and other psychiatric disorders. One or more

individuals on the sports medicine team may make decisions pertaining to the management of

OTC and prescription medications in the sports medicine facility. Written policies and

procedures will demonstrate that due diligence was exercised to involve and educate all

concerned parties, and that all personnel have established guidelines to reference when managing

medication in the sports medicine setting. Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) are

electronic databases created and overseen at the state level to collect data on opioids and other

controlled substances as well as noncontrolled drugs with potential for abuse. Consistent practice

for appropriate screening, assessment, and prescribing for pain can be directed through

computerized prescriber order entry (CPOE), clinical decision support (CDS), pharmacy and

therapeutics committee–approved guidelines, and formulary restriction.






Will healthcare providers (P) That attends educational programs on the assessment and

management of pain in injured athletes (I) lead to an increase of knowledge (O) over a six

month time period (T).



























Brisola Dos Santos, M.B., Mello e Gallinaro, J.G., SampaioJunior, B., Marin, M.C.D., Andrade, A.G., Glick, I.D., … Castaldelli-Maia, J.M. (2016). Prevalence and correlates of cannabis use among athletes: A review. American Journal on Addictions, [Epub ahead of print].


Chang, C. J., Young, C. C., Weston, T., Ohkubo, M., Tedeschi, F., Higgs, J. D., … White, M. (2018). Inter-Association Consensus Statement: The Management of Medications by the Sports Medicine Team. Journal of Athletic Training (Allen Press)53(11), 1103–1112. Retrieved from

Cobaugh, D. J., Gainor, C., Gaston, C. L., Tai, I C. Kwong, Magnani, B., Mc Pherson, M. L.,  Krenelok, E. P. (2014). The opioid abuse and misuse epidemic: Implications for pharmacists in hospitals and health systems. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy71(18), 1539–1554.

Donohue, B., Pitts, M., Gavrilova, Y., Ayarza, A., & Cintron, K.I. (2013). A culturally sensitive approach to treating substance abuse in athletes using evidence-supported methods. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 7, 98–119

Gil, F., de Andrade, A. G., & Castaldelli-Maia, J. M. (2016). Discussing prevalence, impacts, and treatment of substance use disorders in athletes. International Review of Psychiatry28(6), 572–578.

Millman, R.B. & Ross, E.J. (2003). Steroid and nutritional supplement use in professional athletes. The American Journal on Addictions, 12, S48–S54. doi:10.1111/j.1521- 0391.2003.tb00556.x

Simoni-Wastila, L., Ritter, G., & Strickler, G. (2004). Gender and other factors associated with the nonmedical use of abusable prescription drugs. Substance Use Misuse, 39, 1–23

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Fahrenheit 451

Fahrenheit 451

Fahrenheit 451 is an innovative story that dwells on the life of Guy Montag as the main character and is set in the 24th century. Critically, the novel clarifies how literature and books are illegal, and some firefighters have been hired to destroy the materials. Distinctively, Fahrenheit 451 reveals the disruptive nature of technology where individuals are exposed to digital media that does not help in self-improvement. Additionally, there is the depiction of dependency on technology where some characters foster emotional connections to television presenters at the expense of family members. The story progresses into the life of Guy Montag, who questions the morality of his profession as a firefighter when he sees the community being destroyed and deteriorating. As a result, the protagonist decides to transform where he focuses on the rebuilding of the society through the campaign for literature and culture as a rebel with the aspiration of promoting literacy. Among the compelling literary styles incorporated in Fahrenheit 451 is the depiction of various settings that enable the audience to understand the transformation in culture. Decisively, the change in setting affects symbolism and irony as fiction elements in the plot of the novel.

Change in setting is a literary element in Fahrenheit 451 that affects the development of the plot in the novel. Critically, the change in setting enables the author to establish three distinct sections through the life of Guy Montag in the novel. The first phase represents a time when literature and culture were prioritized in society. Also, the first phase showcased a time when literacy was a virtue in the community and individuals engaged in self-development initiatives. Decisively, the change in setting enables a transformation to the second phase, where there are directives intended to disrupt culture and literacy in society (Hwang 596). Under this context, the change in setting is masterfully used by the author to showcase the role of Guy Montag as a dutiful fireman who contributes to the elimination of literacy and culture.

Furthermore, the last stage is inducted by change in setting by the depiction of rebellion, where the protagonist in Fahrenheit 451 questions the immorality of the directives and decides to campaign for literature and culture. Hence, the integration of change in setting as a literary style enables the audience to appreciate the transformation in the plot as depicted by the characters (Hwang 596). Thus, change in setting becomes an essential literary style that provides a practical platform to support various themes such as symbolism and irony in Fahrenheit 451.

Distinctively, the change in setting has been used in Fahrenheit 451 to present an opportunity for the audience to understand the possibilities in the future. Notably, the conversation between Clarisse and Montag is a reflection of how there has been a significant transformation in the community (Bradbury 18). Similarly, the application of the change in setting reveals how the future is limited through censorship in literature, which makes books less attractive to people. As a result, it is possible for the audience to understand why media and technology have replaced literature in the future (Harrison 56). Additionally, the change in setting enables the reader to reflect on the adverse effects of technology in the community as showcased in Fahrenheit 451. Hence, the change in setting allows the practical description of the literature decline in Fahrenheit 451.

Symbolism is a major theme in Fahrenheit 451 that is supported through the change in setting. Notably, “The Hearth and the Salamander” is a title in the novel, which is a representation of symbolism. Distinctively, the title is a depiction of the life of the character in a changing world. From an analytical perspective, the salamander reveals the personality of Guy Montag, who has the capacity of surviving in a difficult situation without being damaged (Greenwood). Through, extrapolation, it is evident that the change in setting is a useful style used by the author that enables the audience to understand the relationship between the community and Guy Montag. Distinctively, by referring to the hearth and the salamander, the author elucidates the resilience in Guy Montag in a transformative society where culture and literature become forbidden. Hence, the use of changing the setting as a literary style enables the audience to understand the symbolism associated with the hearth and the salamander.

In addition, change in setting enables the definition of symbolism through the Phoenix. Distinctively, the Phoenix is a representation of constructive transformation that has to start with destruction. As in the Phoenix, there has to be destruction through fire to rise from the ashes. Critically, the Phoenix is a reflection of the life of Guy Montag, who had to take a destructive path before being reborn (Khan). The path taken by Guy Montag is a reflection of the fire that consumes the Phoenix before a constructive transformation. Afterward, Guy Montag acknowledges the error in his ways and decides to campaign for the establishment of culture by promoting literacy in society. Moreover, the change in setting presents a familiar background to the audience to correlate the Phoenix as a symbol of the life of Guy Montag. Hence, the incorporation of a change in setting enables the better use of symbolism as a literary style to enhance the understanding of the audience.

Irony is a significant theme in Fahrenheit 451 that is supported by a change in setting. Decisively, the change in setting enables the integration of irony as a literary style used to explain various circumstances in the novel. For example, the change in setting depicts irony associated with the actions of firefighters in the utopian society. Traditionally, firefighters are tasked with the responsibility of putting out fires and protecting property. However, the change in setting depicts irony, where firefighters in the utopian society have the obligation of burning books and starting fires to houses that contain literature (Gomez). The change in setting enables the illustration of irony through the life of firefighters in the story.

Similarly, change in the setting is used to reveal the situational irony encompassing the arrival of firefighters at the house of Montag. During the scene, Beatty explains to Montag that he has to destroy his books, as it was illegal to have them. However, Montag responds by killing Beatty to preserve literature (Lee 144). Critically, the change in setting allows a dynamic flow in the plot where the protagonist transforms from a dutiful servant to a rebel. Distinctively, the use of change in setting provides a platform to alter the plot where the focus is on Guy Montag as a rebel who works to promote the preservation of literature. The inclusion of the change in setting is instrumental in Fahrenheit 451 to support situational irony intended to alter the plot of the novel.

Likewise, change in setting is used to outline verbal irony in Fahrenheit 451 that reflects the harmful effect of technology in the utopian society. Verbal irony refers to a situation where the said words differ in meaning as to what was intended by the speaker. In the novel, Mildred explains that she has a deep affection for television presenters and goes the extra step of identifying them as family. However, through the change in setting, it is possible to outline the verbal irony associated with Mildred remarks, which significantly differ from her interaction with family members (Gomez). In reality, Mildred does not have a close connection with family members and disregards their welfare and well-being. Hence, the change in setting between television and real life is instrumental as it enhances the plot of the novel by displaying the harmful effects of technology on the characters.

In addition, change in setting is a literary style used to showcase dramatic irony in Fahrenheit 451. Dramatic irony refers to a situation where the audience has an understanding of an incident while characters remain oblivious. Critically, change in setting enables the depiction of dramatic irony in the plot where Mildred attempts to commit suicide by ingesting sleeping pills. After the intervention by doctors, Mildred is recuperated. However, Mildred does not remember the suicidal attempt and finds it difficult to accept the incident, as explained by Montag (Gomez). It is from this perspective that change in setting enables dramatic irony in this novel. Consequently, change in setting leads to an omniscient presence of the audience to understand happenings in the story despite ignorance from the characters.

Change in setting enforces irony and makes the plot more believable to the audience. Notably, Fahrenheit 451 is a story written in the 1950s when technology was limited. However, the incorporation of change in setting enables the audience to explore imagination and accept the possibility of big televisions and media (Thompson). Critically, the irony is vital in the novel as it enhances a different mentality where the audience evaluates the impact of technology in their lives. Hence, the incorporation of change in setting enables the establishment of a believable plot based on irony and imagination in Fahrenheit 451.

Conclusively, Fahrenheit 451 is an innovative novel that uses change in setting as a primary style to portray various themes. As discussed above, the novel envisions the transformation of a utopian society where literature and books become illegal. As a result, there is the hiring of firefighters to destroy books and literature houses. Distinctively, the change in setting facilitates the description of the life of Guy Montag as the main character before and after the transformation of the community. Critically, change in setting enables the audience to have a deep understanding of the three phases of transformations through the lives of the characters. Additionally, change in setting is instrumental in enforcing the impact of symbolism in the story. Distinctively the Phoenix and the salamander are symbols used to highlight the life of Guy Montag as he transforms from an antagonist to a protagonist who focuses on the preservation of literacy.. For example, the role of firefighters in the novel is altered, as they are responsible for starting fires rather than stopping them. Additionally, irony outlines the disruptive nature of technology where the characters such as Mildred value television characters more than family members. Hence, the utilization of change in setting allows the dynamic flow of the plot in the story through the transformation up to a point where literature and books become illegal in society.