Please provide one paragraph answer for each question


1.    A researcher runs a study and discovers no difference between his conditions. He is worried that he is committing a Type II error. How can he adjust his study to reduce the risk of making this error?
2.    A researcher hypothesizes that eating 5 small meals a day will lead to better overall health than eating fewer, larger meals a day. How should this researcher design her study? What would the conditions be? What would be the DV?
3.    A researcher hypothesizes that people who are given a nap after a lecture will retain more information from that lecture than people who are not allowed to nap. Is this a good hypothesis? Why or why not?
4.    A researcher wishes to investigate the effects of moderate exercise on the joint mobility of arthritis suffers. He asks for volunteers from a retirement community and randomly divides them into an exercise group and a no exercise group. Is this study likely to answer his research question? Why or why not?
5.    A group of researchers is testing the effectiveness of a new mathematics textbook. They have students study the textbook and then take an exam. They discover that all of the children score very poorly on the exam. Should the researchers reject the textbook? Why or why not?
6.    A researcher is interested in understanding the relationship between paying volunteers for their work and the volunteers’ satisfaction with their experience. He runs a simple experiment in which he either pays volunteers $20 for a half hour of work carrying boxes into a soup kitchen or does not pay the volunteers. Is this the best design to answer his question? Why or why not?
7.    A researcher runs a study in which she investigates the differences in scientific literacy of students from different school systems. She claims that certain school systems cause their students to be better consumers of scientific work. Is this a valid conclusion? Why or why not?
8.    A professor is interested in how students’ enjoyment of his course correlates with test scores. In order to study this, he distributes a questionnaire aimed at measuring the students’ enjoyment as the last page of the final exam. Is this an ethical study? Why or why not?
9.    A researcher is interested in the effect of taking vitamin supplements on college-aged women’s overall health. What would be the best research design to use for this question?
10.    A researcher hypothesizes that persistent iron deficiency in women leads to cognitive deficits that affect logical thinking as well as reading comprehension. What is the best research design to study this question?