Define the concepts interrupt and trap


  1. Define the concepts interrupt and trap, and explain the purpose of an interrupt  vector.
  2. How does a computer system with von Neumann architecture execute an  instruction?
  3. What role do device controllers and device drivers play in a computer system?
  4. Why do clustered systems provide what is considered high-availability service?
  5. Describe an operating system’s two modes of operation.
  6. Define cache, and explain cache coherency.
  7. Describe why direct memory access (DMA) is considered an efficient mechanism for  performing I/O.
  8. Describe why multi-core processing is more efficient than placing each processor on its own chip.
  9. Describe the relationship between an API, the system-call interface, and the operating system.
  10. Describe some requirements and goals to consider when designing an operating  system.
  11. Explain why a modular kernel may be the best of the current operating system design techniques.
  12. Distinguish between virtualization and simulation.