Assignment: Risk Factor Analysis & Conceptual Frameworks


Barriers to Condom Usage in Urban and Rural South African Adolescents: An Assessment to Combat Sexually Transmitted Infections

Assignment:    Risk Factor Analysis & Conceptual Frameworks
·    At each level of the Socio-Ecological Framework, provide a description of the variables/factors that influence the risk behavior of interest  (please see the example).
·    Design a conceptual framework that illustrates the linkages and write a narrative  (300 words) at each level
– Follow APA style in writing

Based on information :

  • Health Problem
  • Lung Cancer
  • Behavioral Risk Factor (BRF)
  • Smoking (Tobacco use)
  • Target Audience
  • Young Women in the Western Region of Turkey

Scope of activities

  1. Conduct a thorough literature review to identify the specific variables or contributing risk/protective factors that influence the risk behavior at each level of the SEM (individual, interpersonal, community and societal level; Identify and highlight key theoretical constructs (attitude, belief, self-efficacy, etc.)
  2. Create a conceptual diagram reflecting the factors that influence the risk behavior.
  3. Write a narrative up to 300 words that clarifies the linkages included in the conceptual framework. Identify those variables/constructs that would be most suitable as targets for an intervention and justify your selection.
  4. Literature review should include a minimum of 3 references per level of SEM

Process/Delegating Work: Use Google Docs to work on one document online

  • Each student is responsible for the analysis and development of the conceptual framework of a specific level of the SEM. Selection of the level will be a group decision (for example, student A will be responsible for Individual level; student B will be responsible for Interpersonal level; student C, Community level; student D, Societal and student E, Multi-level) NOTE: INTERPERSONAL, COMMUNITY or MULTI-LEVEL CAN HAVE MORE THAN ONE STUDENT ASSIGNED. These are sometimes the most difficult tasks. Always assign one person to proofread!
  • The diagram should depict the links and relationships that variable/constructs/factors may have on each other. Use shapes, boxes, arrows (to indicate relationship and direction) and lines to pull together your diagram. The diagram should fit on one page. (Note that variables/constructs/factors are used interchangeably in this course.)
  • Make sure you specify the direction of the influence of the variables. For example, don’t just say “knowledge”, but “lack of knowledge”, which provides a more accurate picture of the problem at hand.
  • A list of example of variables at the four levels is provided on page 2.
  1. Finish with a Multilevel framework: This framework will synthesize and combine the variables/ linkages that were found at the individual, interpersonal, community and societal levels. Since this diagram or framework will guide the development of your intervention and your education/communication message, it is important that you include the most prominent variables that influence the risk behavior.

Write a 500 word summary/narrative that explains the linkages within and across the levels of the multilevel conceptual framework highlighting the most salient factors. Document your sources.

  • To organize and present your findings, you MUST follow the format provided here.
  • Submit the assignment in one single document, with a cover page, a title that pertinently reflects your project (must specify the risk behavior, target audience and geographic area), and student names.
  • See the syllabus for writing requirements and source citations


  • Health Problem you are addressing
  • Behavioral Risk Factor (BRF)
  • Target Audience
  • Using the key BRF as your point of reference (because this is the health behavior you want to change in your audience)
  • Depending on your risk behavior, some of the factors listed below may not be relevant or may overlap across levels. Use your good judgment to present them.
  1. Individual Level Factors:
  • Such as knowledge, skills, attitude, beliefs, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived behavioral control, self efficacy, etc.
  • Age, gender, race, ethnic background, education, geographic location, genetic, etc.

Note: Remember that they are risk factors but also protective factors. Also you need to precise the direction of the influence (decrease or increase).

  1. Interpersonal Level Factors
  • Parents, peers, mentors
  • Family or peer norms/pressure
  • Social network, social groups
  • Virtual networks
  1. Community Level Factors
  • Neighborhood, living conditions
  • Local organization policies
  • Physical structures such as parks, green space, lightening, etc.
  • Social structures such as norms, values, social capital
  • Access to care
  1. Societal Level Factors
  • Government and state legislations that address the risk behavior
  • Social policies (health insurance, transportation)
  • Institutions (environment where these policies take place such as work environment, school environment, housing etc.)
  • Social marketing
  1. Multilevel Framework

The following pages provide an example of factors and how to describe them. Please follow the presentation format. Separate each level using “page break”.

Title: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Health Problem


Behavioral Risk Factor (BRF)


Target Audience


Additional Material: