# Solutions to Exercise 18 Questions

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EXERCISE 18 Questions to Be Graded
Follow your instructor’s directions to submit your answers to the following questions for grading. Your instructor may ask you to write your answers below and submit them as a hard copy for grading. Alternatively, your instructor may ask you to use the space below for notes and submit your answers online at http://evolve.elsevier.com/Grove/Statistics/ under “Questions to Be Graded.”
1. Mayland et al. (2014) do not provide the degrees of freedom (df) in their study. Use the degrees of freedom formulas provided at the beginning of this exercise to calculate the group df and the error df.

2. What is the F value and p value for spiritual need—patient? What do these results mean?

3. What is the post hoc result for facilities for the hospital with LCP vs. the hospital without LCP (see Table 2)? Is this result statistically significant? In your opinion, is this an expected finding?

4. What are the assumptions for use of ANOVA?
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5. What variable on Table 3 has the result F = 10.6, p < 0.0001? What does the result mean?

6. ANOVA was used for analysis by Mayland et al. (2014). Would t-tests have also been appropriate? Provide a rationale for your answer.

7. What type of post hoc analysis was performed? Is the post hoc analysis performed more or less conservative than the Scheffé test?

8. State the null hypothesis for care for the three study groups (see Table 2). Should the null hypothesis be accepted or rejected? Provide a rationale for your answer.

9. What are the post hoc results for care? Which results are statistically significant? What do the results mean?

10. In your opinion, do the study findings presented in Tables 2 and 3 have implications for end of life care? Provide a rationale for your answer.