Alternative methods of providing warning/evacuation messages


Sociologists and anthropologists have shown us that the way that people process communications about warnings or need to evacuate from an on-coming storm, wildfire or other hazard, is often greatly influenced by the language and culture in which people have grown up. In multi-cultural societies such as the United States, this means that EM needs to be prepared to use a variety of communications modalities in order to deliver warning and evacuation orders. Please provide two examples of alternative methods of providing warning/evacuation messages. Assume that the hazard is for a massive landslide, such as took place in Oso, Washington last year. After heavy rains on a mountainside that has suffered from forest loss due to logging, geologists are seeing signs that a massive landslide may occur. Assume that the population is made up of English-speaking Anglo-Americans, Spanish speaking immigrant workers, and several hundred members of a Native American (American Indian) tribe living between a river and the mountainside that is in danger of falling.